We’ve been allocating time on Facebook to explain to people interested the etymology and meaning of both names and surnames. For a language like Arabic, ancient or modern, Assyrian, Babylonian, Phonetician, Amorite and many others personal and place names are mostly derived from prehistoric linguistic roots of two types. These include most names mentioned in the Bible (Old and New Testaments), the Quran, folklore, literary and historical works. There are a lot of names and it will take time and patience. The hashed names are for Google. Please scroll down to find your name.
#Aisha , Ayesha, Aysha; #Bilal , #Ahmad , Ahmed,#Mohammad , Hamad, Hamadan, Hamadani (all m.), Hamda, Hamida (f.); #Ali , #Alia ; #Noor ;#Sarah ; #Abeer ; #Amina , Amnah, Ummayah;#Talal , Taleb; #Anam ; #Mishael ; #Mariam , #Mary ,#Maria ; #Faiza ; #Sajida , Sajid; #Abdul , #Abdullah, #Abd , #Abda , #Abboud , #Oubaid ; #Adnan ;#Farooq , #Tariq ; #Shahid , #Shahida ; #Sameer , #Samar , #Samraa , #Sammy , #Sumiah , #Samiah ; #Hassan , #Hussain , #Hasoon , #Hasnaa , #Hasna , #Sana , #Sanaa ; Fatima; Salam, Salem, Salim, Salman, Sallam, Salamah, Salma; Areeba; Ifrah, Farah, Farhan, Farid, Farida; Ameera (f.), Ameer (m); Ilfat, Ulfat, Iylaf, Ilmas/Almas (all f.);
► Ali (m), Alia (f.), Alwai (sect name), Alayyan (surname), Ola (f.), etc. > bilateral root *ʻL, linguistic cluster *Lʻ/*ʻL. The name’s bilateral root has two categories: natural and sacred/religious. ʻLn (Alan) “open, public” is natural. *ᾹLi “high, elevated”, both natural and religious. ʻLii is one of Allah’s sacred names. It is common in Ariba languages (Semetic) to add Allah’s name to personal nouns, ‘Abd Allah’, ‘Abd ‘Ᾱli. Many of the sounds of Ariba ancient language are adapted from the environment and that includes sounds made by animals. The origin of the sound ʻ appears to have been a human approximation of sheep, goats or dogs as the sound is used for words such as “barking, bleating” and the prehistoric general name for a large number of animals with the exception of tigers, lions, etc. The root is *ʻN.
Here is a list of all names cited in Arabic:
علي، عاليا، علوي، عليان، عالي، عليّ، عاربة، عبد الله، عبد العالي، عن.
You can hear the sound of ʻ (ayin) here but skip the first minute:
► Noor (f. & m.), Nora (f.), Nawar (f. but also a surname – ‘nawara’ and ‘abu nawara’), Nariman (f.), Nouri (m.) and most names that have the two consonants ‘n’ and ‘r’: > bilateral root: *NR, linguistic cluster: *RN/*NR > originally fire light but later extended to mean “sun light” (Noor shams). Because it is a category the invention of this root is associated with the ability of humans to light fire when needed, and therefore the knowledge of how to light fires. “NaR is “fire”. It could be 15,000+ years at least.
► Sarah (f.), SaraḤ (f.): > bilateral root: *SR, linguistic cluster: *RS/*SR > ‘SR’ “pleasing, happy”. Natural meaning is “to walk”. The connection between “to walk” and “happy” is that prehistoric people could only find food, water, game, protected caves, etc., by walking and searching for them.
►Abdul (m.), Abdullah (m.), Abd (m.), Abda (f.), Abboud (m.), Oubaid (m.). The first two names (Abdul, Abdulla) are nucleitic compound (made of two roots) >*ʻB (ʻ > ayain) and *ʼL (ʼ > very short ‘a’ called ‘hamza’). *ʻB is “the sacred water of Kabaa” but came to be known as “servant, slave” probably because chosen people were given the task of distributing the water and therefore servants of Allah who gave them water. *ʼL is “Allah”. The rest of the names, Abd, Abda, Abboud, Oubaid, etc., are variations with the meaning of “servant of Allah”
►Abeer (f. ‘a’ stands for ayain – look in origin of Ali to hear the sound). We know the root for this name but we can’t reveal it now because it is a crucial topic in a forthcoming book. We can tell, however, that Abeer and Kaaba are from the same root. The consensual meaning is “scent, perfume” but it is the perfume of burning frankincense in Kaaba in prehistoric times. It is attested extensively in Akkadian.
►Adnan: This name is masculine only because it is derived from the name of the founder of one of the two main nations the children of whom are spread from Morocco to Afghanistan and most of Europe. The ‘a’ is not a short vowel (hamza) but ayin > ʻD. From it is “Aden” the city in south Yemen and the name of paradise ‘ʻDN. This is a very ancient name. It is possible southern Yemen 30,000 or 40,000 years ago was very lush.
►Ahmad, Ahmed, Mohammad and all other variations, Mahmood, Hamed, Hamdan, Hamoodah, Hamid, Hamida (f) and any other name with the two consonants Ḥ & M: > bilateral root *ḤM, linguistic cluster *ḤM/*MḤ. The bilateral root and the cluster were originally “natural” for the category of motherhood and connected with the woman’s productive system and human warmth. Proper nouns are derived from *ḤMyyar, a race in south Arabia of black origin. They established a powerful empire and converted to Judaism in the early AD centuries and the name acquired some “sanctity”. *ḤaMad is a verb “To thank, be grateful to” used ordinarily or religiously: “*ḤaMad somebody for generosity”; “*ḤaMad Allah for His gifts”.
►Aisha (f.), Aiysh (m.), Aiish (m.), Ayyoush (f.): Popular names clear or diminutive but Aisha is named after Prophet Mohammad’s daughter: Bilateral root ʻš (ish) “bird nest”; linguistic cluster ʻš/šʻ. One of the greatest roots invented in prehistoric times expressing advanced concepts such “love, socialising, number 10” and several others. Aʻš means “life, living, surviving and eating”. Because eating is essential for surviving the figurative ‘Aisha, Aiysh, Aiish and Ayyoush’ could mean “to live long, to survive long”. A pleasant surprise for Aisha, etc. is here:
►Ameera (f.), Ameer (m.). The ‘A’ is a very short ‘a’, or hamza (IPA ʼ), and shouldn’t be confused with ‘ayin” as in “Arab” the IPA of which is (ʻ). The common meaning is “princess” and “prince” but it is much more than that. The original root is *MR “mur”, a son or a descendent of “Adam”. This is not a mistake Adam did exist but probably 50,000 years ago. Mur is head of the Amorites. Hammurabi is a compound ‘Ammur’ or ‘Amr’ “Mur” and ‘abi’ father.
►Amina (f.), Amna, Aminah, Ummayah (f.), Ameen, Ayman (m.) Imam (leader, Muslim sheikh leading prayer), and dozens of other names and words. One of the first two dozens or so of words invented by by our ancestors deep in prehistoric times. Bilateral root: ʼM (ʼ is hamza, a very short ‘a’), linguistic cluster: **ʼM/ Mʼ > *ʼM “mum, mother”, from ʼMn “safety, honesty, trustworty”, ʼMl “hope”.
►Anam (f.), also plural “people”. The name is not Ariba (Semitic) but Sumerian: ‘nam’ “(area of) responsibility; destiny, fate, lot, sign; office; governor; province; manner, way; used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns, such as nam-lugal, ‘kingship’ or nam-maþ, ‘greatness’ (n, ‘precise essence’, + àm, enclitic copula, ‘to be’) [NAM archaic frequency: 30; concatenation of 4 sign variants]. Then name ‘khair al anam’ “human’s best” is sometimes used to describe Prophet Mohammad.
►Areeba: The consensus meaning is “loving” and occasionally “one who is loving of her husband”. The root is the same for “Arab, Arabic, Arabian”. Interestingly, these names are connected with the Egyptian god ‘Ra’ (IPA = Rʻ). The linguistic structure is *Rʻ/*ʻR. If interested to know why:
►Bilal (m.): > balbal > bal > bilateral root *BL; linguistic cluster *BL/*LB. The most common meaning is “moist, wet”. From the root is *BLʻ “to swallow food or drink”. Moisture, and therefore water, was associated with life. The rain is a blessing hence the name could have the figurative meaning of “good omen”. The other root *LB is famous. From it is “laban” originally “milk. It is also “heart”. Muslims in Haj call “lubayk allahuma lubayk” i.e. “Allah, we present you with our heart,” with a consensual meaning of “we answer your call”.
►Dalal, Dalila (f.) see pls this post:
►Maher (m.), Mahira (f.), Mahran Pls see this post:
►Maha (f.) pls see this link:
►Faiza, Fauz (f.,), Faiz, Fawwaz, etc. (m.) > root: *FZ “run up, spring up, win, come first”. Meaning derived from the notion that she or he who springs up first to accomplish something is distinguished and winner.
►Farid (m.), Farida (f.): These two names look different from Ifrah but they are from same root. The meaning is “unique” but “singular” or “alone” is the original meaning. Still, unique, singular and alone are similar on the basis of individuality. Root > *PR, name ‘*PRd’. The state here is of bird or other creature living alone not with a group.
►Farooq, Tariq (both m.) > *RQ > ‘rqeeq’ “soft, gentel”. Originally brittle “sheets of ice”. This applies in whole to ‘Farooq’. “Tariq’ has the additional meaning of “soften things by hammering”, or simply “knocking (Taraq) on doors”, etc. The reason is that hammering certain materials may make them softer and thinner, like sheets of ice.
►Fatima (f. only): root > *FṬ (ʼʼ= ‘t’ in ‘tuff”), Linquistic cluster *FṬ/*ṬF. The two closest words to the name is ‘*FṬm’ “to wean a child from suckling”, ‘*FṬr’ “to break fasting, to cut something to make something else”. The two words and the name are common in Arabic and ‘*FṬr’ is mentioned in the holy Quran. It simply means a girl who was weaned but the popularity of the name is due to Prophet Mohammad’s daughter by the name. However, the origin of the name is prehistoric ‘*PT’ and it has the meaning of “to cut, to sever”. When a baby girl is weaned she’s being figuratively “cut out from milk”.
►Hassan (ḤaSN), Hussain, Hassan (ḤaSSN), Hasoon (all m.), Hasnaa, Hasna (f.), Sana, Sanaa (f.) >*SN > Originally ‘sin’ “tooth” but the ancients were captivated by the whiteness of teeth hence meanings such as ‘bright, lamination, bright light”, etc.. ‘Sanah’ “year” is from the same root (*SN). The reason is that the growing of teeth are linked to progressive growth of humans and animals.
►Ifrah: “To make happy”, ‘afrah’ “celebrations, happy occasions”. The root is ancient Yemeni and belongs to one of the most versatile linguistic structures we have identified *PR/*RP migrated to *FR/*RF. The original meaning is “to part, to separate, to fly away”. The life of our ancient ancestors was very difficult with many sad occasions. A departure from such occasions is “happiness”. Other names from the root include Farah, Farhan. The ‘h’ is an IPA ‘Ḥ’.
►Ilfat, Ulfat Iylaf (All f.): This name takes the highest prize of all names ever created. The prehistoric root is *ʼL (*IL) and the linguistic cluster is (✤*ʼL⇆*Lʼ). ‘IL is the root for Allah, Elohim and Eli, or the names of God for Muslims, Jews and Christians. The name’s original trilaterals (three letters) is root ʼL+f. It has several meanings including “to make familiar, to get accustomed to, somebody who’s gentle, one who conciliates amongst people, domesticate, one who joins people and creates affinity amongst them, the number 1,000 (alf). Some of these attributes are specific to IL (Allah). The number 1,000 was the largest created in ancient Arabia and beyond. If they wanted to express one million it would be “a thousand thousand”. The reason is it is as ultimate as the power of God.
►Ilmas/Almas is another name for a girl and it means “diamond’ because diamonds sparkle. The name looks a compound > *IL+*MS to mean “a stone touched by IL or God. Compounds are historical third in linguistic components. Probably 10,000+ years. The fact it has the origin of the name of Elohim, Ili and Allah is a surprise to the etymology team.
►Mariam, Maryam, Maram, Mary, Maria, etc. (all feminine), all from the same root *Rʼ, or linguistic cluster *ʼR/*Rʼ. *Rʼ is one of the greatest linguistic root created deep in prehistoric times. “Eros”, “erotic”, “orotology” are originally Greek borrowing from the very ancient Ariba mother tongue. Letter ‘m’ is prefixed to root (m+Rʼ) originally “man and woman” and still is in Arabic. Not biblical as widely but wrongly believed. Attested heavily in Akkadian: Example: ra ‘ īmu : [Moral life → Feelings] loved , beloved , loved one.
►Mas. Michal, Michael, Micheil, Michel, Michele, Micho, Michon, Mietekm Miguel, Mihai, Mihangel, Mihkel, Mihály, Mikael, Mikael, Mikel, Mikhail, Mikhos, Mikk, Mikkel, Mikko, Miquel, Mischa, Misha, Misi, Miska, Mícheál, etc. Fem. Michaela, Mikayla, Makaylas, Kayla, Mika, Mila, Mia, Michelle, Michaela, Micah, Mischa, etc. This proper name is attested in Ancient Arabic, Canaanite and Akkadian. Here is the Akkadian enry: mukīl rēš damiqti : [Religion → Myths] a good genie , a “guardian angel” (?). The proper name derives from a Stone Age biliteral root found in most important languages. It is *MG, the origin of magnum, major, majority, make, mechanic, magazine, (store), Mecca, etc. The semantic origination is found in Arabic makuk “shuttle”. This is what shoppers and traders do in markets – go in and out all day. The angel of the same name does just that – he takes letters from prophets to God and takes back His replies, like a shuttle. The name is attested in Akkadian so it is not Hebrew, a non-lineage Ancient Arabian ongue, unlike Akkadian (Assyrian & Babylonian), Ancient Arabic, Maltese, etc.
►Mishael (f.): We are not sure the name does not mean something specific in Urdu or Hindi but it has a root in Ariba (Semitic) *Šʻ “ray” as in “sun rays”; “throw light”; “brighten”. From the root ‘Šʻl’ “light a fire”. ‘Mashael’ (pl.) “light torches”.
►Sajida (f.), Sajid (m.). Same origin as ‘masjid’ mosque. Originally used to mean somebody standing in worship (Tai’s – a famous Arab tribe – specific word) but later kneeling in worship. Sumerian > sag with a north Arabic migration of hard ‘g’ to ‘j’.
►Salam, Salem, Salim, Salman, Sallam, Salamah (all m.), Salma (f.), Islam, Muslim: root > *LM, Linquistic cluster *LM/*ML. *LM, lik all roots, has several meanings one of them is connected to “group” of people or things but specifically here a group of Jin (genies). The trilateral ‘s*LM’ has the meaning of “being safe”, ‘salamah’ “safety” with a wider range of meanings the most common of which is ‘s*LM’ “peace” and “amity” or “peaceful”. ‘tas*LiM’ is “handover” and from it “surrender” to “put oneself in somebody’s trust or care and guardianship”.
►Sameer (m.), Samar (f.), Samraa (f.), Sammy (m.), Sumiah (f.), Samiah (f.) and most other name with the root *SM. Sumerian origin > *SM > SuM > A glorious nation originally from east Africa known by different names including: Sumerian, Canaanites, Phoenicians, etc.
►Shahid (m), Shahida (f.) > *HD > HuD, a famous prophet mentioned many times in the Quran, and a Sura is named after him. Originally a chieftain from the Yemeni nation of ʻD (See Adnan). His mausoleum is in Al Ahqaf, Yemen. The construction of the name is called “a suffixed specifier extension”, (SSE) > In this case ‘sh’ (Š)+HD. The name is not a ‘natural root”, meaning it is derived from a personal pronoun. There is a natural linguistic cluster (*DH/HD) that has different meanings.
►Talal, Taleb (m.), ‘t’ > sound similar to English ‘t’ in ‘tub’, IPA symbol ‘Ṭ’ ). Bilateral root: * ṬL, linguistic cluster: *ṬL/*LṬ. ‘ṬL’ “to emerge, to look from an elevated position, to heralds something, light rain” etc. From *ṬL > ‘baṬL’ “hero, daring”. This is so because the first to emerge from caverns and holes in prehistoric times to confront an approaching danger, sabre tooth tigers, enemies, etc., is the most daring, later described as “hero”.
Image credit: it.depositphotos.com
#Bishtawi is author of #Origin_of_ “Semitic”_languages, Origin of Arabic Numerals and Natural Foundations of Arabian Civilisation: Origins of alphabets, numeration, numerals, measurements and money.