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OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF OUR UNIVERSAL NUMERAL SYSTEM

Adel S. Bishtawi is author of 20 books including Origin of Arabic Numerals: a natural history of numbers, now in its 3rd English edition accompanied by a special Arabic edition. Another book is Origin of the Semitic Languages. The author is a keen etymologist of Stone Age speech and his research is now extended to Hindi and European languages most of which appear to be largely based on Stone Age biliteral roots of an ancient mother language called Ancient Arabian.

Tags: number, numbers, numeral, numerals, calculation, mathematics, origin of the Arabic numerals, history of Arabic numerals, Arabic numeral system, concept of the zero, Eastern Arabic numerals, Western Arabic Numerals, greatest inventions of the humankind, Stone Age origins of numbers, Stone Age origin of numerals, bishtawi, adel bishtawi, Adel S. Bishtawi

Mysteries of Numerals and Alphabets

https://youtu.be/S_Yy5531bqg

About 7,000 years ago our trading ancestors took the first steps in developing the prototypes of an alphabetical literary system and a numeral system. Of the two, our ancestors may have needed numbers before letters but the beginning of organised trade required both systems. For the first time in probably 40,000 years it was possible for information and experiences to be transferred from the elusive memory of the human mind to more durable surfaces. Trade needs both letters and numbers to function and most activities in markets involve documentation, calculation and the issue of receipts for goods bought and sold. The bond between letters and numbers has been historically strong, a subject which was treated in other videos, but in this video, we are including original etymological research to support our arguments and help explain some of mysteries surround the history of both numbers and letters.

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

 

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Etymology

and the alphabetical numeric system.

 

The Arabian Nights Numeric Wonder

https://youtu.be/a-0qfcNaNg4

This video is the same as The Arabian Nights Numeric Wonder except we are offering the viewers a unique chance to listen to the type of music popular some 1,200 years ago. Al-Mussili sang and played music to the famous Emperor Haroun al-Rashid in Baghdad and he is the reputed author of a refined type of music and singing known as The Maqamat. It is said that this refined music and singing was transferred to Central Asian countries following the sacking of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258. The music, in two cassettes, was given to this author by the Emir of the Province of Shinjang (Xinjiang) in China during the shooting of a film about the nation of Uyghur in Shinjang many years ago.

*The Arabian Nights Numeric Wonder*: The Arabic Numerals System is a gift of human ingenuity like no other and like no other its simplicity, accuracy and effectiveness. There is something magical about numbers and numerals. Like the flying carpet of the Arabian Nights, even the greatest numbers we can think of are processed with astonishing speed. If people can find the word to name a new high number, the Arabic Numeral System will produce its entire numerals before they finish. Subconsciously, it occurred to this writer and his colleagues, we’ve always known that the numerals are reproductions of things we have affinity with but it took some time before realising our hands and fingers are the numerals.

This video is one of a series of 10 shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. you don’t have to see all of them; only those you like. each video will include a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help you choose. we hope that you will enjoy the background music to the videos as well as the content.

 

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

 

*The Arabian Nights Numeric Wonder*: The Arabic Numerals System is a gift of human ingenuity like no other and like no other its simplicity, accuracy and effectiveness. There is something magical about numbers and numerals. Like the flying carpet of the Arabian Nights, even the greatest numbers we can think of are processed with astonishing speed. If people can find the word to name a new high number, the Arabic Numeral System will produce its entire numerals before they finish. Subconsciously, it occurred to this writer and his colleagues, we’ve always known that the numerals are reproductions of things we have affinity with but it took some time before realising our hands and fingers are the numerals.

This video is one of a series of 10 shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. you don’t have to see all of them; only those you like. each video will include a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help you choose. we hope that you will enjoy the background music to the videos as well as the content.

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

 

 

The Twining of Arabic and Europeans Numerals: This video is presented as part of everything important that needs to be known about the origin, history, development, usage and the dissemination of numbers and the Arabic Numerals System from an authority on the origin of the Arabic Numerals and their positional system.

 

The main theme of the video are the steps taken to insure the provision of an adapted family of the Arabic Numerals and their system to European users beginning in the 12th century. When the twined set of Arabic Numerals were finalised Europeans had the chance to begin their application for scripts that run from left to right. The impact of the introduction of Arabic Numerals to Europe cannot be underestimated for its contribution to European Renaissance and further dissemination of the numeral system in many parts of the world.

Numerics: Everything important that needs to be known about the origin, history, development, usage and the dissemination of numbers and the Arabic Numerals System from an authority on the origin of the Arabic Numerals and their positional system.

This freshly-made 2 parts video is divided into sections covering, navigation instruments, ancient coins, manuscripts, epigraphical evidence of the numerals and the numeric system, in addition to a brief history of the origins of both western and eastern numerals.  the video includes visually enhanced demonstrations of the numeric alphabet clearly explaining the nature of the hand and finger formations, which can be used to express numbers using one’s own hands and fingers. The exercise should be fun and educational.

This video is one of a series of 10 shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. you don’t have to see all of them; only those you like. each video will include a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help you choose. we hope that you will enjoy the background music to the videos as well as the content.

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

Everything important that needs to be known about the origin, history and development of numbers and numerals rom Adel Bishtawi the author of the acclaimed Origin of Arabic Numerals: a natural history of numbers and the Origin of the Semitic Languages

 

Everything important that needs to be known about the origin, history and development of numbers, numerals and main alphabets

The numeral and literary alphabets are among the greatest human inventions and two of the most critical foundations of our civilization. Remove them from our life and we may find ourselves back in the Stone Age again. There is a great deal of confusion in the hundreds of volumes written about letters and numerals. This is because the Stone Age is the era to look for the origins of both. The scholar needs to understand the language of the Stone Age in order to understand the foundations of our civilisation. Adel S. Bishtawi published 20 books including The Origin of Arabic Numerals and The Origin of Semitic Languages. Probably he is one of a very small number of researchers qualified to discuss literary and numeral alphabets.

 

We aim to explain to viewers the complex history of writing and numeration in simple terms. The visual and audio media may provide the most practical platforms. We have prepared 10 video shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. Viewers don’t have to see all of them; only those they like and those they need to see to understand what alphabets and numerals are all about without the ambiguity, complication and guesswork that plague most of the extant literature on both.

 

 

Each video will be introduced by a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help viewers choose, and all will be regularly updated to enrich with the on-going research of ancient civilisations to explain the remarkable continuity of knowledge that led us to where we are today.

 

 

 

 

The numeral and literary alphabets are two of the greatest inventions by Homo Sapiens and both are

critical foundations of our civilization. We are here today because of the perseverance and total commitment of our ancient mums and dads to protect their children from the many dangers prevalent in ancient times, the most serious of which were the recurring famines. Throughout the ages we have recognized the outstanding men and women who helped create our great civilization, but those who remained unknown are far more numerous including the inventors and developers of our universal numeral system and the many alphabets we use, foremost of which is the mother Phoenician alphabet.

 

Humanity is different from the species before us in many ways, but it may be said that we distinguished ourselves with the development of viable speech and viable numeration, both of which are mathematically based and constructed. Of the two, our ancestors appear to have favoured numerals first because of the need to identify their enemies as much as their friends, make sure that resources are distributed fairly and show ownership of things acquired.

 

It is for these reasons, as well as others, that numerals and letters have a strong relation.  Several letters of the Phoenician alphabet appear to derive from numeral shapes or at least greatly influenced by their natural and beautiful shapes. The advent of the Agricultural Era was responsible for closing the door to the Stone Age but the absence of our numeral and literary scripts could probably send us back to it.

 

Story telling is an art and some of the best stories are those in which the authors allow the characters to tell their own story rather than telling it on their behalf. This applies to both numerals and letters. Numerals have an older story. The first three numbers may have been known to our ancient ancestors before they left Africa 50,000 years ago. The story of the numeral “1” is far older and appears to have been created as a simple dividing between one plot of land and the next.

 

If that is the case, some of our letters also belong to the Stone Age. The history of the primeval smaller numbers is shrouded in mystery. The names of the higher numbers are made of three letters (triliterals), the language of the Agricultural Era and is no mystery as there are more than 7,000 old.

 

The numerals used beyond the East are all derived from their Eastern forefathers. The only reason for their existence was to serve users who have left to right writing scripts, because numerals have to follow the general script orientation.

 

Serious attempts to adapt the Eastern numerals to serve left to right users were initiated in the 12th century and the moves to achieve this goal is sufficiently documented by Moroccan and Andalusian-educated mathematicians.  One manuscript written by the mathematician al-Haṣṣar contain all the Western numerals, but he used the Eastern numerals in his key book. For him, as well for the other authorities on the history of numerals, they are both the same and users can choose either.

 

Although the 15th century cannot be considered ancient times. Astrolabes, equatoria (astronomical calculating instruments), sundials, clocks as well as manuscripts and books, contain all the numerals. The actual mysteries of the numerals are related to the ancient Eastern numerals not the Western. When did our Stone Age ancestors use numerals, why and what partners in their environment inspired them to use their hands and fingers to count?

 

We believe the videos we have been prepared answer this and many other questions authoritatively but also with clarity. One of the greatest question authors, historians and mathematicians have been trying to answer for probably a thousand years is the origin of our numerals.

 

The videos will explain that the greatest secret is actually no secret at all. Every numeral in theEastern set is produced by a hand signal formed by a special formation of the hand and fingers. European or Western numerals are different but not by much. Like their Eastern counterparts, all our numerals are approximations of hand and finger formations. This means that we do not write abstract numerals, digits or symbols but actually “draw’ the physical representations of hand and finger formations expressing the relevant numeral. That said the numerals are not critical on their own. The critical component of the Universal Numeral System (otherwise known as Arabic) is the invention of the 10-numeral grid and the embedding of the numeric value of the older numeral 10 in its novel zero substitution.

 

The videos are primarily educational but we tried to make them enjoyable. They discuss all matters related to our numeric system and the major alphabet. The acclaimed History of Arabic Numerals: a natural history of numbers is in its third edition but we are offering a viewer-friendly experience with these videos.

 

It is not a secret that we rediscovered the origin of the numerals by accident in modern times. The numerals derived from hand and finger formations were perhaps too simplistic to be originally noticed and thus overlooked. This rediscovery then encouraged us to look into the origin of our alphabets. The mother tongue spoken by the two main Adite and Aadite tribes, who probably fathered most of seven billion people today, is the origin of some of the greatest ancient and modern languages. Most of the research has been published in the book Origin of Semitic Languages. In addition, the experience we gained from analyzing Stone Age speech is relevant to both numeral and literary alphabets as it provides researchers with a new effective tool which can clear some of the confusion surrounding the origin of mathematics. Some elements of the new research have been introduced in the videos where relevant.

 

There are 10 video shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. You don’t have to see all of them; only those you like. Each video will include a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help you choose. We hope that you will enjoy the background music to the videos as well as the content.

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

 

A Short Story of Our Numerals (9:56 minutes)

This video introduces the Arabic Numeral System – what is it? What are its components? How does it function, and other important elements of the greatest and simplest numeric system invented?

 

NUMERICS: Everything important that needs to be known about the origin, history and development of numbers and numerals (33:12 minutes)

This video is divided into sections covering, navigation instruments, ancient coins, manuscripts, epigraphical evidence of the numerals and the numeric system, in addition to a brief history of the origins of both Western and Eastern numerals.  The video includes visually enhanced demonstrations of the numeric alphabet clearly explaining the nature of the hand and finger formations, which can be used to express numbers using one’s own hands and fingers. The attempt should be fun and educational.

 

The Greatest Mystery of the Arabic Numerals (23:25 minutes)

For more than a thousand years the best mathematical and historical minds wrote volumes on the origin of the numerals but nobody was able to reveal their source. In research, as in most other things, if you are not looking for something specific you are unlikely to find it even if it were under your very nose. Unless the scholar is aware of Stone Age speech it may not be possible to explain the origin of the Arabic Numeral System. After a brief review of the elements considered “mysterious” the video concludes by revealing the greatest mystery of the Arabic Numerals.

 

This video is one of a series of 10 freshly made shows covering almost every aspect of the numerals and the numeric system in addition to an introductory explanation of the origin of our main alphabets. You don’t have to see all of them; only those you like. Each video will include a brief about the content and the various topics discussed to help you choose. We hope that you will enjoy the background music to the videos as well as the content.

Thank you in advance for taking the time to watching them, and hope that they have been insightful.

 

Hot European Numbers

 

Before the introduction of the Arabic numeral system in Europe life was not easy for those with biggish numbers If you need to document a number above 4,000 in Roman Numerals you may want to think again. It took some Europeans an astonishingly long time before exchanging counters and Roman numerals for the Arabic numeral system –  800 years.

The realities in Europe can explain the delay. The Arabic numeral system was not needed in every European country. Europe as a continent didn’t have much use for it.  The people were poor, money was scarce, trade was very basic and wars were frequent.

The things began to change dramatically. By the end of the 15th century Europe’s luck began to turn. Trade expanded rapidly. The gold and silver of the New and Old Worlds alike flooded into Europe The demand for ships and navigation instruments exploded.

The Arabic decimal system, unloved and misunderstood for almost 800 years, was suddenly in great demand. The time for the Arabic Numeral System had finally arrived. Some mastered the system quickly, but others found it very difficult. No wonder, then, a popular poem in England at the time screamed:

Multiplication is my vexation,

And division is quite as bad,

The golden rule is my stumbling-stool,

And practice makes me mad.

 

 

Greatest Mystery of the Arabic Numerals (23:25 minutes)

 

authoritatively

 

 

The author, Adel Bishtawi, is a historian and a researcher of ancient languages. His 20 published works include The Origin of the Arabic Numerals and The Origin of Semitic Languages. With such a background Bishtawi. a native speaker of Arabic, may be one of very few experts who can explain the Arabic Numeral System authoritatively but in the simplest of terms.

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